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Theon of Alexandria (Ancient Greek: Θέων ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. AD 335 – c. 405) was a Greek^{[1]} scholar and mathematician who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. He edited and arranged Euclid's Elements and wrote commentaries on works by Euclid and Ptolemy. His daughter Hypatia also won fame as a mathematician.
Little is known about the life of Theon. He made predictions and observances of solar and lunar eclipses in 364 which show he was active at that time, and he is said to have lived during the reign of Theodosius I (379–395).^{[2]} The biographical tradition of the tenth century Byzantine Suda defines Theon as "the man from the Mouseion";^{[3]} however, both the Library of Alexandria and the original Mouseion were probably destroyed by the fourth century, although there may have been a new Mouseion established on a different site.^{[4]}
A lunar crater, Theon Junior, now bears Theon's name.
It is known that Theon edited the Elements of Euclid. He may also have edited some other works by Euclid and Ptolemy, although here the evidence is less certain. The editions ascribed to Theon are:
Of his commentaries, those which are extant are:
Among Theon's lost works, the Suda mentions On Signs and Observation of Birds and the Sound of Crows; On the Rising of the Dog[-Star]; and On the Inundation of the Nile.^{[3]}
Alexandria, Arabic language, Alexander the Great, Greek language, China
Mathematics, Euclidean geometry, Number theory, Alexandria, Greek language
Astronomy, Mars, Jupiter, Ptolemy, Babylonian astronomy
Muse, Helios, Heracles, Trojan War, Zeus
Ptolemy, Archimedes, Almagest, Orbit, Pi
Mathematics, Astronomy, Plato, Philosophy, Neoplatonism
Mathematics, Logic, Science, Number theory, Euclid