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Syrian Turkmen

Syrian Turkmens
Total population
100,000[1]—200,000[2] or 1,500,000[3] - 3,500,000[4][5]
Regions with significant populations
Aleppo  · Damascus  · Jazira  · Hama  · Homs  · Latakia[6]
Languages
Arabic  · Turkish[7][8]  · Azerbaijani[9]
Religion
Predominately Sunni Islam[10]
Related ethnic groups
Oghuz Turks (Turks  · Azerbaijanis  · Iraqi Turkmens  · Egyptian Turkmens)

Syrian Turks (Turks in Syria, Syrian Turkoman or Syrian Turkmen) (Turkish: Suriye Türkleri) are Syrian citizens of Turkish descent, who have been living in the Syrian provinces of the Ottoman Empire before its dissolution and continue to live in the modern country of Syria.[11]

During the Syrian Civil War, the Turkmen population of Syria were mainly involved in military actions against the Syrian Government Forces and have looked at Turkey for support and protection.[12]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Turkmen cities 2
  • Turkmen villages 3
  • Population 4
  • Notable people 5
  • Gallery 6
  • See also 7
  • References and notes 8
  • Bibliography 9

History

In the late 11th century, Syria was conquered first by the Seljuk Turks. After Seljuk Empire was separated into four parts, Malikshah's brother, Tutush, established the Syrian Seljuk State in 1079.[13] Syria was reigned by the Seljuks of Syria till 1117,[14] and then Artuqids, Zengids, Ayyubids and Mamluk Sultanate governed the region. Syria was conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Selim I in 1516 after defeating the Mamlukes at the Battle of Marj Dabiq near Aleppo in northern Syria. According to the population records of Ottoman Empire in 1518, the total population of Aleppo province was 54.276, and 36.217 was of Turkmen population.[15]

Turkmen cities

Turkmen came to Syria in several migration waves. Sometimes, the Seljuks and the Mamelukes living in the area adopted the Turkmen in their armies, and some Turkmen became aristocrats. Linda Cichlr wrote about these Turkmen aristocratic families in her book about the city of Damascus.

Turkmen villages

Turkmen villagers were resettled by the Ottoman Empire because of fear of unrest and riots that were caused by the Bedouin tribes during droughts. The instability of the Ottoman Empire made it difficult to control the tribes. Aelkezl Bash was a prominent anti-Ottoman leader. After the Ottomans returned from conquests in Europe however, they were able to put down revolutionary activities in the area and resettled the Turkmen to the villages of Latakia, Aleppo, Homs, and Hama in the Golan. Today, there are 523 Turkmen villages in Syria.[16]

In the vicinity of Hama and Homs, there are a number of villages which have a majority Turkmen population, including Houla, Aqrab, Talaf and Kafr Ram.[17]

Population

There are no clear estimates on the number of Turkmen in Syria. Several sources put them at around 100,000[1] to 200,000 However, the official state reports reflect reality.[2] Syrian Turkmen on the other hand claim to be between 750,000 and 1,500,000.[11] Nevertheless, the Turkmen National Council announced 3.5 million as the number of Turkmen in Syria.[18]

Notable people

Gallery

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ a b Phillips, David J. (1 January 2001). Peoples on the Move: Introducing the Nomads of the World. William Carey Library. p. 301.  
  2. ^ a b AFP (31 January 2013). "'"Turkmen in joint battle 'for Syria democracy. NOW. Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
  3. ^ World Population Review, Syrian Population 2013, "Other major groups in Syria are Kurds (2 million), Syrian Turkmen (0.75-1.5 million) and Assyrians (0.9 to 1.2 million)."
  4. ^ ORSAM Report No: 150, Center for Middle Eastern Strategic Studies
  5. ^ ORSAM Report No: 83, The Turkmens of Syria, Quoted from page 16 (in Turkish): "Değişik kaynaklar ve saha çalışmasında elde edilen verilerden yola çıkarak Suriye Türkmenlerinin toplam nüfusu 3,5 milyon civarındadır."
  6. ^ Commins 2004, 268.
  7. ^ Galié & Yildiz 2005, 18.
  8. ^ Karpat 2004, 436.
  9. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/language/AZB
  10. ^ Shora 2008, 236.
  11. ^ a b Özkaya 2007, 112.
  12. ^ Dispossessed Turkomans in Syria wait for Turkey’s support
  13. ^ Gábor Ágoston, Bruce Alan Masters, (2009), Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, InfoBase Publishing, Google Books, p 516
  14. ^ Sigfried J. de Laet, (2000), History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century, p.828, UNESCO, Google Books p.828
  15. ^ Öztürk Mustafa, 1616 Tarihli Halep Avarız-Hane Defteri, Read Online, p 255, (in Turkish)
  16. ^ The Turkmen of Syria: exposed early to assimilation and deportation policies, Page: 4-5, Iraqi Turkmen Human Rights Foundation, February 15, 2012, Paper No: Art.1-A1512, http://www.turkmen.nl/1A_soitm/Art.1-A1512.pdf
  17. ^ Hartmann, 2012, p. 54.
  18. ^ http://www.polishaber.net/haber-8755-suriyedeki_kurtler_ve_turkmenler_haritasi.html

Bibliography

  • Commins, David Dean (2004), Historical dictionary of Syria, Scarecrow Press,  .
  • Galié, Alessandra; Yildiz, Kerim (2005), Development in Syria: a gender and minority perspective, Kurdish Human Rights Project,  .
  • Hartmann, Martin (2012). Reisebriefe aus Syrien (in German). Books on Demand.  
  • Özkaya, Abdi Noyan (2007), "Suriye Kürtleri: Siyasi Etkisizlik ve Suriye Devleti’nin Politikaları",  
  • Scott, John; Taylor, John (1828), The London magazine, University of Michigan .
  • Karpat, Kemal H. (2004), Studies on Turkish politics and society: selected articles and essays, BRILL,  .
  • Shora, Nawar (2008), The Arab-American Handbook: A Guide to the Arab, Arab-American & Muslim Worlds, Cune Press,  .
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