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Slavery (Ottoman Empire)

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Slavery (Ottoman Empire)

Slavery was an important part of Ottoman society[1] until the Ottoman Empire ended slavery of Caucasians (including Georgians, Armenians, and Circassians) in the early 19th century.[2] The practice carried over into Ottoman reign, as slaves from other groups were allowed. As late as 1908, female slaves were still sold in the Ottoman Empire.[3]

A member of the Ottoman slave class, called a kul in Turkish, could achieve high status. Harem guards and janissaries are some of the better known positions a slave could hold, but slaves were actually at the forefront of Ottoman politics. The majority of officials in the Ottoman government were bought slaves, raised free, and integral to the success of the Ottomans from the 14th century to the 19th. By raising and specially training slaves as officials, they created administrators with intricate knowledge of government and fanatic loyalty, thus reducing corruption. As an administrator with no ties in the region, he would not favor one person over another when granting contracts. In Constantinople (today Istanbul), the administrative and political center of the Empire, about a fifth of the population consisted of slaves.[4]

Early Ottoman slavery

In the mid-14th century, Murad I built an army of slaves, referred to as the Kapıkulu. The new force was based on the Sultan's right to a fifth of the war booty, which he interpreted to include captives taken in battle. The captive slaves converted to Islam and trained in the sultan's personal service. The Devşirme system could be considered a form of slavery because the Sultans had absolute power over them. However, the 'slave' or 'kul' of the Sultan had high status within Ottoman society, they could become the highest officers of state and the military elite, and all were well remunerated.

Slaves were traded in special market-places called "Esir" or "Yesir". It is said that Sultan Mehmed II established the first slave market in Constantinople in the 1460s.[5]

Ottoman slavery in Eastern Europe

In the devşirme, which connotes "blood tax" or "child collection", young Christian boys from the Balkans and Anatolia were taken from their homes and families, converted to Islam and enlisted into the most famous branch of the Kapıkulu, the Janissaries, special soldier classes of the Ottoman army, which became a decisive factor in the Ottoman invasions of Europe.[6] Most of the military commanders of the Ottoman forces, imperial administrators and de facto rulers of the Empire, such as Pargalı İbrahim Pasha and Sokollu Mehmet Paşa, were recruited in this way.[7][8] By 1609, the Sultan's Kapıkulu forces increased to about 100,000.[9]

Domestic slavery was not as common as military slavery.[10] On the basis of a list of estates belonging to members of the ruling class kept in Edirne between 1545 and 1659, the following data was collected: out of 93 estates, 41 had slaves.[11]

The total number of slaves in the estates was 140, 54 female and 86 male. 134 of them bore Muslim names, 5 were not defined, and 1 was a Christian woman. Some of these slaves appear to have been employed on farms.[12] In conclusion, the ruling class, because of extensive use of warrior slaves and because of its own high purchasing capacity, was undoubtedly the single major group keeping the slave market alive in Ottoman empire.[13]

Rural slavery was largely a Caucasian phenomenon, carried to Anatolia and Rumelia after the Circassian migration in 1864.[14] Conflicts frequently emerged within the immigrant community and the Ottoman Establishment intervened on the side of the slaves at selective times.[15]

The Crimean Khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East until the early eighteenth century. In a process called "harvesting of the steppe", Crimean Tatars enslaved Slavic peasants. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russia suffered a series of Tatar invasions, the goal of which was to loot, pillage, and capture slaves into "jasyr".[16] The borderland area to the south-east was in a state of semi-permanent warfare until the 18th century. It is estimated that up to 75% of the Crimean population consisted of slaves or freed slaves.[17]

Barbary slave raids

Hundreds of thousands of Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries.[18][19] These slave raids were conducted largely by Arabs and Berbers rather than Ottoman Turks. However, during the height of the Barbary slave trade in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Barbary states were subject to Ottoman jurisdiction and ruled by Ottoman pashas. Furthermore, many slaves captured by the Barbary corsairs were sold eastward into Ottoman territories before, during, and after Barbary's period of Ottoman rule.

African slaves

As there were restrictions on the enslavement of Muslims or "people of the Bible", pagan Africa was a good source of slaves. Black slaves were coming from East and Central Africa, mainly from areas such as Abyssinia, Sudan, Northern Nigeria and Chad. Black slaves were employed in households and in the army as slave-soldiers. Some could ascend to high rank officials but in general were inferior to European and Caucasian slaves.[20][21]

Slaves in the Imperial Harem

The concubines of the Ottoman Sultan consisted chiefly of purchased slaves. The Sultan's concubines were generally of Christian origin, as Islamic law forbade Muslims to enslave fellow Muslims. The mother of a Sultan, though technically a slave, received the extremely powerful title of Valide Sultan which raised her to the status of a ruler of the Empire (see Sultanate of women). One notable example was Kösem Sultan, daughter of a Greek Christian priest, who dominated the Ottoman Empire during the early decades of the 17th century.[22] Roxelana, another notable example, was the favorite wife of Suleiman the Magnificent.

The concubines were guarded by enslaved eunuchs, themselves often of African origin. While Islamic law forbade the emasculation of a man, Ethiopian Christians had no such compunctions; thus, they enslaved and emasculated members of neighboring nations and sold the resulting eunuchs to the Ottoman Porte.[23]

The Coptic Orthodox Church participated extensively in the slave trade of Nubian or Abyssinian eunuchs. Coptic priests sliced the penis and testicles off boys around the age of eight in a castration operation. The eunuch boys were then sold in the Ottoman Empire. The majority of Ottoman eunuchs endured castration at the hands of the Copts at Abou Gerbe monastery on Mount Ghebel Eter.[24] African boys were captured from Abyssinia and other areas in Sudan like Darfur and Kordofan then brought into Sudan and Egypt. During the operation, the Coptic clergyman chained the boys to tables and after slicing their sexual organs off, they stuck a bamboo catheter into the genital area, then submerged them in sand up to their necks. The recovery rate was 10 percent. The resulting eunuchs fetched large profits in contrast to eunuchs from other areas.[25][26][27]

Sexual slavery

Main article: Sexual slavery

Circassians, Syrians and Nubians were the three primary races of females who were sold as sex slaves in the Ottoman Empire. Circassian girls were described as fair, light skinned and were frequently sent by the Circassian leaders as gifts to the Ottomans. They were the most expensive, reaching up to 500 pounds sterling and the most popular with the Turks. Second in popularity were Syrian girls, with their dark eyes, dark hair, and light brown skin, and came largely from coastal regions in Anatolia. Their price could reach up to 30 pounds sterling. They were described as having "good figures when young". Nubian girls were the cheapest and least popular, fetching up to 20 pounds sterling.[28] Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, female slavery was not only central to Ottoman practice but a critical component of imperial governance and elite social reproduction.[29] Dhimmi boys taken in the devşirme could also become sexual slaves, though usually they worked in places like bathhouses (hammam) and coffeehouses. They became tellak, köçek or sāqī for as long as they were young and beardless.[30]

Decline and suppression of Ottoman slavery

Due to European intervention during the 19th century, the Empire began to attempt to curtail the slave trade, which had been considered legally valid under Ottoman law since the beginning of the empire. One of the important campaigns against Ottoman slavery and slave trade was conducted in the Caucasus by the Russian authorities [31]

A series of legal acts was issued that limited the slavery of white people initially and of those of all races and religions later. In 1830, a firman of Sultan Mahmud II gave freedom to white slaves. This category included the Circassians, who had the custom of selling their own children, enslaved Greeks who had revolted against the Empire in 1821, and some others. Another firman abolishing the trade of Circassian children was issued in October, 1854. A firman to the Pasha of Egypt was issued in 1857 and an order to the viziers of various local authorities in the Near East, such as the Balkans and Cyprus, in 1858, prohibited the trade of black slaves but did not order the liberation of those already enslaved.

However, slavery and the slave trade in Ottoman Empire continued for decades, as legal texts like the above were not backed by a penalty system. It was not until 1871 that a circular of July 20th of that year introduced the penalty of one years imprisonment for those who practiced the slave trade.

Later, slave trafficking was expressly forbidden by utilizing clever technical loopholes in the application of sharia, or Islamic law. For example, by the terms of the sharia, anyone taken as a slave could not be kept a slave if they had been Muslim prior to their capture. They could also not be captured legitimately without a formal declaration of war, which could only be issued by the Sultan. As late Ottoman Sultans wished to halt slavery, they did not authorize raids for the purpose of capturing slaves, and thus it effectively became illegal to procure new slaves, although those already in slavery would remain slaves.[32][33]

Towards the end of the 19th century, the trade of black slaves gradually ceased in places controlled by Western powers but continued undercover in countries around the Indian Ocean controlled by Eastern governments, particularly Ottoman rule such as East Africa, Arabian Peninsula. Britain and the Ottoman Empire, after the former pressed the latter on this matter, signed a treaty in 1880 for the abolition of slavery and the slave trade. However, the treaty was only enforced under Ottoman law in 1889.

The Ottoman Empire and 16 other countries signed the Brussels Conference Act for the suppression of the slave trade, although clandestine slavery persisted into the early 20th century. A circular by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of October, 1895 warned local authorities that some steam-ships stripped black sailors of their “certificates of liberation” and threw them into slavery. Another circular of the same year reveals that some newly freed black slaves were arrested based on unfounded accusations, imprisoned and forced back to their lords. An instruction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to the Vali of Bassora of 1897 ordered that the children of liberated slaves should be issued separate certificates of liberation to avoid both being enslaved themselves and separation from their parents. George Young, Second Secretary of the British Embassy in Constantinople, wrote in his Corpus of Ottoman Law, published in 1905, that by the time the book was written the slave trade in the Ottoman Empire was only practiced as contraband.[34] This trade continued up until the First World War. Henry Morgenthau, Sr. who served as USA Ambassador in Constantinople from 1913 till 1916, in his "Ambassador Morgenthau's Story" writes that during his term in Constantinople there were gangs trading white slaves.[35] He also mentions that Armenian girls were sold as slaves for as low as 80 cents during the Armenian Genocide events in 1915.[36]

See also

Notes

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