World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Lowland castle

Article Id: WHEBN0033368384
Reproduction Date:

Title: Lowland castle  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Castle, Marsh castle, Neck ditch, Hill castle, Outer bailey
Collection: Castles by Type
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Lowland castle

Trakai Castle (Lithuania), an island castle

The term lowland castle or plains castle (German: Niederungsburg, Flachlandburg or Tieflandburg) describes a type of castle based that is situated on a lowland, plain or valley floor, as opposed to one built on higher ground such as a hill spur. In Germany, about 34 percent of all castles (Burgen) are of the lowland type.[1]

Because lowland castles do not have the defensive advantage of a site on higher ground, sites are chosen that are easy to defend, taking advantage, for example, of rivers, islands in lakes or marshes. Where such natural obstacles do not exist, artificially similar obstacles take on added significance. These include water-filled or dry moats, ramparts, palisades and curtain walls. In order to increase the height of the castle above the surrounding terrain, artificial earth mounds may be built (such as mottes), and fortified towers also fulfil this purpose.

Castles of the Early Middle Ages (including Slavic and Saxon castles) often had a narrow, deep ditch and high and steep earth ramparts.

Lowland castles are naturally found on plains such as the North German Plain or in the Netherlands. But they may also be encountered occasionally in highlands, for example in a valley as a so-called island castle (Inselburg) on an island in a river (e.g. Pfalzgrafenstein Castle).

Contents

  • Types 1
  • Examples 2
  • References 3
  • Sources 4

Types

The moat at Calvörde Castle was linked to the River Ohre via a canal system
  • Water castle (Wasserburg): Overarching term for all castle types that use water as a defensive obstacle. Depending on their topographic situation these castles may be subdivided into (original German terms in brackets):
  • River castles (Flussburg): a castle erected on a river bank. As a rule, they are also surrounded by moats filled with water supplied by the river.
  • Shore castle (Uferburg): castle by a lake or the sea. Like river castles, shore castles usually have artificial ditches (moats) with a link to the waterbody.
  • Island castle (Inselburg): castle on a natural, more rarely on an artificial, island in a river or lake.
  • Marsh castle (Sumpfburg): castle in marshy or boggy terrain. It uses the natural inaccessibility of the terrain to its defensive advantage.
  • Valley castle (Talburg): Castle on a valley bottom. A special variation are so-called Talsperren ("valley barriers"), where fortifications in the valley are linked to a hillside or hilltop castle so that this type consists of a combination of a lowland castle and a hill castle. An example are the Castles of Bellinzona.

Sub-types according to function:

  • Bridge castle (Brückenburg): a castle built to watch over and protect a river crossing.
  • Harbour castle (Hafenburg): a castle that is built to protect a harbour.

Examples

Groß Raden, castle from the Early Middle Ages

References

  1. ^ Krahe, pp. 21-23 (2002)

Sources

  • Böhme, Horst Wolfgang; Friedrich, Reinhard and Schock-Werner, Barbara (ed.) (2004). Wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen. Reclam, Stuttgart, p. 156, ISBN 3-15-010547-1
  • Krahe, Friedrich-Wilhelm (2002). Burgen und Wohntürme des deutschen Mittelalters. Vol. 1, Thorbecke, Stuttgart, 2002, pp. 21–23, ISBN 3-7995-0104-5,
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.