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Kurdish Hezbollah

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Kurdish Hezbollah

Kurdish Hezbollah, (KH)[1]
Leader(s) Hüseyin Velioğlu 
İsa Altsoy[2]
Dates of operation 1983[3]–present
Active region(s) Cross section of (southeastern Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria)
Ideology Sunni islamism,
Anti-communism
Status Designated as Terrorist Organization by the Republic of Turkey[4]

Kurdish Hezbollah (KH)[2][5][6] (

  • Levitsky, Olga, "In the Spotlight: Turkish Hezbollah". Terrorism. Center for Defense Information. December 10, 2003.
  • Turkish Hezbollah: Release of Turkish Hezbollah Members Rocks Turkey

External links

  1. ^ a b TTurkish Hezbollah (Hizbullah) / Kurdish Hezbollah, turkishweekly.net
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i The Kurdish Ḥizbullāh in Turkey. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. By: Mehrzad Boroujerdi, Nader Entessar, Martin Kramer, Joseph A. Kéchichian, Emrullah Uslu. Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World
  3. ^ Growing Influence of the Hezbollah. Qantara.de (2006-12-29). Retrieved on 2011-02-09.
  4. ^ Türkiye'de Halen Faalıyetlerıne Devam Eden Başlica Terör Örgütlerı (in Turkish). Emniyet Genel Müdürlüğü.
  5. ^ a b Aslı Aydıntaşbaş, Murder on the Bosporus, Middle East Quarterly, June 2000, pp. 15–22, Meforum.org. Retrieved on 2011-02-09.
  6. ^ The real challenge to secular Turkey, The Economist, 31 Aug 2006
  7. ^ Gareth Jenkins Tales from the crypt, Al-Ahram Weekly, 3–9 February 2000, Issue No. 467
  8. ^ Ufuk Hiçyılmaz, Aksiyon, 31 January 2005, Maskeli Hizbullah’ın hedefi cemaatler
  9. ^ a b Corry Görgü: "Die Anschläge auf die Synagogen in Istanbul und die Rolle von Staat und Hizbullah"
  10. ^ A New Front in the PKK Insurgency / ISN. Isn.ethz.ch (2010-06-15). Retrieved on 2011-02-09.
  11. ^ Turkish sympathy for militants grows Common Dreams News Center
  12. ^ Hizbullah raporunda, örgütün İran İstihbarat Servisi'ne bağlı Pasdar'la büyük benzerlik gösterdiği kaydedildi: 'Askeri eğitim İran'da yapılıyor', TBMM'nin Hizbullah Raporu – Bölüm 1- Cumhuriyet Gazetesi'nden; cited in the daily Cumhuriyet of 2 February 2000.
  13. ^ a b Mehmet Faraç, Cumhuriyet, 19 January 2000, Hizbullah'ın kanlı yolculuğu (archive link)
  14. ^ a b c Human Rights Watch, 16 February 2000, What is Turkey's Hizbullah?
  15. ^ The Turkish Counter-Terrorism Experience, Suleyman Ozeren, Organizational and Psychological Aspects of Terrorism, Ed. Centre of Excellence Defence against Terrorism, (IOS Press, 2008), 159.
  16. ^ Turkish Hezbollah, Encyclopedia of Terrorism, Ed. Harry W. Kushner, (Sage Publications Inc., 1993), 368-369.
  17. ^ The Kurdish Question and Turkish Foreign Policy, Kemal Kirisci, The future of Turkish foreign policy, Ed. Lenore G. Martin, Dimitris Keridis, (MIT Press, 2004), 295.
  18. ^ Radikal, 3 July 1999, Radikal-online / Türkiye / TÜRKİYE'DEKİ İSLAMCI KURULUŞ VE ÖRGÜTLER. Radikal.com.tr. Retrieved on 2011-02-09.
  19. ^ Milliyet, 23 March 2007, Hizbullah davasında 9 yıl sonra karar; (Turkish). Retrieved 21 October 2009.
  20. ^ Hurriyet Daily News, 31 January 2000, Hizbullah is prime example of state's 'playing one against the other' policy
  21. ^ Evan Kohlmann, National Review, 25 November 2003, Terrorized Turkey: Pointing fingers at al Qaeda
  22. ^ Akkoç v. Turkey, Application Nos. 22947/93, 22948/93, Judgement of 10 October 2000, European Court of Human Rights judgment concerning Akkoç v. Turkey case, section II, C (English)
  23. ^ Cited in the 2000 Human Rights Watch report relying on the book of Faik Bulut and Mehmet Farac: Kod Adı: Hizbullah (Code name: Hizbullah), Ozan Publishing House, March 1999.
  24. ^ Benjamin Harvey (18 January 2011). "Turkey Officer Says He Created Local Hezbollah Group, Star Says".  
  25. ^ Hurriyet Daily News, 27 January 2000, Hizbullah: The Susurluk of the Southeast
  26. ^ In the Spotlight: Turkish Hezbollah, the article was written in December 2003. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  27. ^ Turkish Hizballah. Fas.org. Retrieved on 2011-02-09.
  28. ^ Maskeli Hizbullah'ın hedefi cemaatler; Turkish article published in the journal Aksiyon on 31 January 2005. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  29. ^ a b An online edition of the Annual Report 2000 of the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey is available on the website of the Democratic Turkey Forum
  30. ^ See: EXTRA 64/01 of 14 September 2001 (Hacı Bayancık), UA 218/01 of 4 September 2001 (Hacı Elhunisuni), UA 209/01 of 22 August 2001 (Yasın Karadağ), UA 194/10 of 31 July 2001 (Edip Balık), UA 317/00 of 17 October 2000 (Fesih und Hatice Güler)
  31. ^ Radikal, 31 December 2009, Hizbullah'a 10 yıl sonra 16 müebbet / Türkiye / Radikal İnternet. Radikal.com.tr (2009-12-31). Retrieved on 2011-02-09.
  32. ^ Sebnem Arsu (4 January 2011). "After a Court Ruling, Turkey Frees 23 Suspected Militants".  
  33. ^ Compare an article in the daily Radikal of 13 April 2013: Hizbullah: Tebliğ, Cemaat, Cihat; accessed on 15 April 2013
  34. ^ a b See an article of the International Relation and Security Network in Zurich of 15 June 2010 written by Gareth Jenkins A New Front in the PKK Insurgency, accessed on 15 April 2013
  35. ^ See an article of the portal timeturk.com Mustazaf-Der resmen kapatıldı! dated 11 May 2012; accessed on 15 April 2013
  36. ^ Hüda-Par'ın rakibi BDP mi, AK Parti'mi?. Timeturk.com (2012-12-06). Retrieved on 2013-02-09.
  37. ^ Hür Dava Partisi (Hüda-Par) Resmen Kuruldu. Haberdiyarbakir.com (2012-12-17). Retrieved on 2013-02-09.

References

See also

In late 2012, the Movement of the Oppressed announced its will to found a political party, basically to challenge the hegemony of the Turkish: Peygamber Sevdalıları, Kurdish: Evindarên Pêyxamber) particularly active in Kurdish Mawlid meetings.

On 20 April 2010 a court in Diyarbakir ordered the closure of the Association for the Oppressed (Mustazaf-Der) on the grounds that it was “conducting activities on behalf of the terrorist organization Hizbollah.”[34] The decision was confirmed by the Court of Cassation on 11 May 2012.[35]

[34] It also became known as the Movement of the Oppressed ([33] or short Mustazaf Der) in 2003.Mustazaflar ile Dayanışma Derneği Following the decision to end armed struggle in 2002, sympathizers of Hizbollah's Menzil group founded an association called "Solidarity with the Oppressed" (tr:

Movement of the Oppressed and Hüda-Par (2002–present)

Eighteen members of Turkish Hezbollah, suspected of militant activities, were released from jail on 4 January 2011, in accordance with a recent amendment to the Turkish criminal code that set a limit of 10 years on the time detainees can be held without being sentenced in a final verdict.[32]

The Hezbollah trial was concluded in December 2009. The defendants received varying terms of imprisonment.[31]

In the time to follow many trials were conducted in Diyarbakır and other places against alleged members of Hezbollah. In several instances defendants raised torture allegations. Such allegations are documented in Urgent Actions (UA) of Amnesty International.[30] In the trial in which Edip Gümüş and Cemal Tutar were indicted the defendant Fahrettin Özdemir said on 10 July 2000 that he had been held in custody for 59 days and had been tortured. In the hearing of 11 September 2000 Cemal Tutar said that he had been held in police custody for 180 days.[29]

After the kidnapping of several businessmen in Istanbul and the subsequent raid of a house in Beykoz quarter a nationwide hunt on Hezbollah supporters followed. During the operation in Beykoz on 17 January 2000 Hüseyin Velioğlu was killed and Edip Gümüş and Cemal Tutar were detained. Edip Gümüş, born 1958 in Batman was alleged to lead the military wing of Hezbollah and Cemal Tutar was said to be a member of the armed wing.[29] In this period nearly 6000 KH members were arrested.[2]

Trials (2000–2011)

[28] Ufuk Hiçyılmaz stated that the group had about 1,000 armed members.[27] a figure presented by the [9] In December 2003 Corry Görgü put the number of militants as high as 20,000

Human resources

[25] According to journalist

Former Minister [24]

The 1993 report of Turkey's Parliamentary Investigation Commission referred to information that Hezbollah had a camp in the Batman region where they received political and military training and assistance from the security forces.[22]

The weekly Çevik Kuvvet) in Diyarbakır. Two days after the article was published its author, Halit Güngen was killed by unidentified murderers.[14] Namik Taranci, the Diyarbakir representative of the weekly journal Gerçek (Reality), was shot dead on November 20, 1992 on his way to work in Diyarbakır. Again, the previous edition of the magazine had examined relations between the state and Hizbullah. Hafiz Akdemir, reporter for Özgür Gündem (Free Agenda), was shot dead in a Diyarbakır street on June 8, 1992, after reporting that a man who had given refuge to assassins fleeing a Hezbollah-style double killing in Silvan was released after only six weeks in custody, without even appearing in court.[14]

Turkish military support

Some of Hezbollah's major attacks allegedly include an April 1999 suicide bombing in Bingol, and the February 2001 assassination of Diyarbakir police chief Gaffar Okkan (and five other police).[21]

The KH also targeted journalists which wrote about its activities, particularly those who wrote about connections between KH and the Turkish state and military. Journalists associated with 2000'e Doğru and Özgür Gündem were particularly targeted (see List of journalists killed in Turkey).[20]

In the early 1990s the organization became a direct threat to the already rising Kurdish separatist movement. The Kurdish Islamist group (of Sunni thought) began as an oppositional force against the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), though later they have targeted both the PKK and people who they considered to be with low morals (people who drank alcohol, wore mini-skirts etc.).[19] Between 1992 and 1995 KH killed around 500 PKK members, for the loss of around 200 of its own.[2]

Further groups within Kurdish Hezbollah were named as Tevhid, led by Nurettin Şirin and Mehmet Şahin and Yeryüzü, led by Burhan Kavuncu.[18] Besides the town of Batman, Hezbollah was strongest in Silvan district of Diyarbakır province. For a long time the village Yolaç was used as their base.[13]

The group which became known as Kurdish Hizbollah took this name in 1993, after emerging victorious from a bloody factional war between two wings of the Union Movement (Vahdet Hareketi) which had been established following the 1980 Turkish coup d'état's crushing of Islamist hopes for democratic success. Hüseyin Velioğlu's group had previously been known as İlim, named for his bookshop.[2] According to Turkish security officials, the Turkish Hezbollah was financed by and trained in post-revolutionary Iran, with Iran allegedly using terror groups to establish Islamic governments throughout the Middle East.[15][16][17] However, there is substantial evidence that Turkish Hezbollah was in fact supported, if not actually established, by elements of the Turkish state and military.

History

In 1987, when Hüseyin Velioğlu moved his bookshop to Batman, different opinions on leadership and armed actions resulted in the split of the two wings.[13] The so-called İlim-wing, under the leadership of Hüseyin Velioğlu insisted to start the armed struggle immediately. The dispute resulted in bloody fighting between the two factions.[14] Between 1990 and 1993, the İlim group killed many members of the Menzil group, and ultimately emerged victorious.[2] In 1993 the İlim group took the name Hizbullah.[2]

In the 1970s various Turkish/Kurdish Islamists sought to work through democratic means to develop Islamism in Turkey. Many joined the National Turkish Student Association (Milli Türk Talebe Birliği, MTTB), the youth organization of the Diyarbakır – Fidan Gündör's Menzil and Hüseyin Velioğlu's İlim. Until 1987 the groups gathered around these bookshops worked together.[11][12]

Background

Contents

  • Background 1
  • History 2
  • Turkish military support 3
  • Human resources 4
  • Trials (2000–2011) 5
  • Movement of the Oppressed and Hüda-Par (2002–present) 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

[10]

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