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Kremlin

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Title: Kremlin  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Ostrog (fortress), Citadel, List of tallest Orthodox church buildings, Pakistan–Russia relations, List of Russian architects
Collection: Fortifications in Russia, Kremlins
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Kremlin

A wall of Smolensk Kremlin in 1912.
Remains of the Kolomna Kremlin.
Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin.
The bishop residence in Rostov, sometimes called a Kremlin

A kremlin (, fortress; same root as in kremen (Russian: кремень, tr. kremen, flint)) is a major fortified central complex found in historic Russian cities. This word is often used to refer to the most famous one, the Moscow Kremlin, or to the government that is based there.

Contents

  • The short list of Russian cities with kremlins 1
  • Kremlins outside borders of modern Russia 2
  • Further reading 3
  • See also 4
  • External links 5

The short list of Russian cities with kremlins

Kremlins outside borders of modern Russia

After the disintegrations of the Kievan Rus, the Russian Empire and the USSR, some fortresses considered Kremlin-type, remained beyond the borders of modern Russia. Some are listed below:

The same structure in Ukraine is called dytynets (, from dytyna - child). The term has been in use since the 11th century. The term Kremlin first appeared in 14th century in Russian territories, where it replaced dytynets.

Many Russian monasteries have been built in a fortress-like style similar to that of a kremlin. For a partial list, see Monasteries in Russia.

Further reading

  • Воронин Н. Н. Владимир, Боголюбово, Суздаль, Юрьев-Польской. М.: Искусство, 1967.
  • Кирьянов И. А. Старинные крепости Нижегородского Поволжья. Горький: Горьк. книжн. изд., 1961.
  • Косточкин В. В. Русское оборонное зодчество конца XIII — начала XVI веков. М.: Издательство Академии наук, 1962.
  • Крадин Н. П. Русское деревянное оборонное зодчество". М.: Искусство, 1988.
  • Раппопорт П. А. Древние русские крепости. М.: Наука, 1965.
  • Раппопорт П. А. Зодчество Древней Руси. Л.: Наука, 1986.
  • Раппопорт П. А. Строительное производство Древней Руси (X—XIII вв.). СПб: Наука, СПб, 1994.
  • Сурмина И. О. Самые знаменитые крепости России. М.: Вече, 2002.
  • Тихомиров М. Н. Древнерусские города. М.: Гос. изд. полит. лит-ры, 1956.
  • Яковлев В. В. Эволюция долговременной фортификации. М.: Воениздат, 1931.

See also

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External links

  • Russian Fortification Architecture
  • Man sues Russian Government to own Moscow Kremlin (RT article)
  • Twelve Russian Kremlins
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