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Inalids

The Inalids (the sons of İnal or Yinal, Turkish: İnaloğulları or Yinaloğulları) was the name of a small beylik (principality) which reigned in a small territory around Amid (modern Diyarbakır of Turkey) between 1098-1183.[1][2]

Melikşah, the sultan of Great Seljuk Empire died in 1092. After his death, the western provinces of the empire began to disintegrate. In 1095, the governor of the city of Amid (modern Diyarbakır) was a Turkmen lord (Turkish: bey) named Sadr. He defeated other Turkmen lords who tried to capture Amid. After his death his son İnal (Yinal, Inal) declared independence . However Inal soon died and during the reign of İbrahim, the small principality had to accept the suzerainty of its more powerful neighbours; first Seljuks of Syria, then Great Seljuk Empire, then Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm (1105) and finally Sökmenli (Ahlatshahs) (1109).[3]

During the reign of Ilaldı, the beylik of Inaloğulları was able to recover. He conquered some territory from Sökmenli and in 1124 he also fought against Ismailism, a religious sect.[4] In 1133 a new and more powerful enemy appeared at the south; the Zangids. Although Zangids defeated Ilaldı in the battle, they weren't able to capture the city.

After Ilaldı’s death in 1142, the beylik had to accept the suzerainty of Artukids who captured most of its territory. Moreover, family of Nisan, once bereucrats of the beylik, became the de facto rulers of the beylik. On 9 May 1183, the Artukids who allied with Saladin captured Amid and put an end to the beylik.[5]

Beys

  • Sadr (1095–1096)
  • İnal (1096–1098)
  • İbrahim (1098–1110)
  • İlaldı (1110–1142)
  • Mahmud (1142–1183)

References

  1. ^ Hasan Celāl Güzel, Cem Oğuz, Osman Karatay The Turks: Middle ages 2002 "When Sadr died in 1098, his brother Inal Ttirkmani governed Amid, and he established here the Inalogullari beylik, which was to govern here for close to a century. It is understood that Emir Inal did not live long either. His son Fahruddevle Ibrahim replaced him.202 ..."
  2. ^ The public figure: political iconography in medieval Mesopotamia Estelle J. Whelan - 2006 "INALIDS Great Mosque and City Walls, Amid Construction. History - As we mentioned in our summary of the Seljuq constructions at Amidjust before 490/1096 the Seljuq Tutush of Damascus appointed a Turkish officer named Inal governor of"
  3. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim: Türkiye tarihi I, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 162-163
  4. ^ (Turkish)An essay on Inaloğulları
  5. ^ (Turkish)History Teachers' page

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