World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Biopreservation

Article Id: WHEBN0031196402
Reproduction Date:

Title: Biopreservation  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Food preservation, Hurdle technology, Tyndallization, Thermization, Potjevleesch
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Biopreservation

The small rods shown here are lactic acid bacteria which convert lactose and other sugars to lactic acid. The products of their metabolism can have benign preservative effects.
3D stick model of nisin, a particularly effective preservative produced by some lactic acid bacteria.

Biopreservation is the use of natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials as a way of preserving food and extending its shelf life.[1] Beneficial bacteria or the fermentation products produced by these bacteria are used in biopreservation to control spoilage and render pathogens inactive in food.[2] It is a benign ecological approach which is gaining increasing attention.[1]

Of special interest are lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactic acid bacteria have antagonistic properties which make them particularly useful as biopreservatives. When LABs compete for nutrients, their metabolites often include active antimicrobials such as lactic and acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and peptide bacteriocins. Some LABs produce the antimicrobial nisin which is a particularly effective preservative.[3][4]

A bacterium that is a suitable candidate for use as a biopreservative does not necessarily have to ferment the food. But if conditions are suitable for microbial growth, then a biopreservative bacterium will compete well for nutrients with the spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in the food. As a product of its metabolism, it should also produce acids and other antimicrobial agents, particularly bacteriocins. Biopreservative bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria, must be harmless to humans.[2]

These days LAB bacteriocins are used as an integral part of Gram-negative bacteria."[1]

In fish processing, biopreservation is achieved by adding antimicrobials or by increasing the acidity of the fish muscle. Most bacteria stop multiplying when the pH is less than 4.5. Traditionally, acidity has been increased by fermentation, marination or by directly adding acetic, citric or lactic acid to food products. Other preservatives include nitrites, sulphites, sorbates, benzoates and essential oils.[3]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Ananou S, Maqueda M, Martínez-Bueno M and Valdivia E (2007) "Biopreservation, an ecological approach to improve the safety and shelf-life of foods" In: A. Méndez-Vilas (Ed.) Communicating Current Research and Educational Topics and Trends in Applied Microbiology, Formatex. ISBN 978-84-611-9423-0.
  2. ^ a b Yousef AE and Carolyn Carlstrom C (2003) Food microbiology: a laboratory manual Wiley, Page 226. ISBN 978-0-471-39105-0.
  3. ^ a b FAO: Preservation techniques Fisheries and aquaculture department, Rome. Updated 27 May 2005. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  4. ^ Alzamora, Stella; Tapia, Maria Soledad; López-Malo, Aurelio (2000). Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables: Fundamental aspects and applications. Springer. p. 266.  

References

  • Baust JC and Baust JM (2006) Advances in biopreservation, CRC/Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8493-2772-8.
  • Drosinos EH, Mataragas M and Metaxopoulos J (2005) "Biopreservation: A New Direction Towards Food Safety" pp. 31-64 in Riley AP (Ed.) New developments in food policy, control and research Nova Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59454-409-5.
  • Lacroix C (2010) Protective Cultures, Antimicrobial Metabolites and Bacteriophages for Food and Beverage Woodhead Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84569-669-6.
  • Montville TK and Matthews KR (2008) Food microbiology: an introduction ASM, pp. 351–362. ISBN 978-1-55581-396-3.
  • Theron TM and Lues JF (2009) Organic Acids and Food Preservation CRC Press, Page 21. ISBN 978-1-4200-7842-8.


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.