World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Battle of Konya

Battle of Konya
Part of First Turko-Egyptian War
Date December 21, 1832
Location Konya, Ottoman Empire
Result Egyptian Victory[1][2]
Belligerents
Egypt Eyalet Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Ibrahim Pasha Reşid Mehmed Pasha (POW)[3]
Strength
15,000 men[4]
48 guns
53,000 men[5]
100 guns
Casualties and losses
262 dead
530 wounded
3,000 dead
5,000 taken prisoner

The Battle of Konya was fought on December 21, 1832, between Egypt and the Ottoman Empire, just outside the city of Konya in modern-day Turkey. The Egyptians were led by Ibrahim Pasha, while the Ottomans were led by Reşid Mehmed Pasha. The Egyptians were victorious.[5]

Contents

  • Prelude 1
  • Opposing armies 2
  • Field and order of battle 3
  • Aftermath 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6

Prelude

The Egyptian campaign to occupy Syria began on October 29, 1831, starting the First Turko-Egyptian War. Two armies set out from Egypt, one by land under General Ibrahim Yakan, and the other by sea, landing at Jaffa, under Ibrahim Pasha. The Egyptians rapidly occupied Jerusalem and the coastal regions of Palestine and Lebanon, except for Acre, which had impregnable walls and a strong garrison of about 3,000 hardened fighters with much artillery. Acre, under the Ottoman Paha Abdullah Elgazar, held out against a long and bloody siege before finally falling to the Egyptians on May 27, 1832.

The final battle of the campaign of 1831/1832, came at Konya on December 18–21, 1832. Several minor clashes between advanced elements and scouting parties of the two armies took place on December 18 and 19, and the main battle described below was on December 21.

Opposing armies

Egyptian Forces: Ibrahim Pasha commanded a total of about 50,000 men in all of infantry brigades, twelve cavalry brigades and the artillery and engineers. Much of this force was spread out on his supply lines, and only 27,000 regular troops were available at the battle of Konya. However, these were the most experienced and disciplined of his army. At the battle, Ibrahim had 20 infantry battalions, 28 cavalry squadrons, and 48 guns.

Ottoman Forces: Reshid Pasha commanded an army of 80,000 from various Ottoman provinces, including many Albanians and Bosnians. At the battle Reshid had a total of about 54,000 men, of which about 20,000 were irregulars: 54 infantry battalions, 28 cavalry squadrons, and 100 guns.

Field and order of battle

The main battle took place on December 21, 1832, astride the Konya-Constantinople road, just north of the ancient walled town of Konya, which, in 1832, had a population of about 20,000. The battlefield is bounded on the west by hills and on the east by marshes and swamps, with a plateau about two miles (3 km) wide in between. The Egyptian army had its back to the town and faced North, and the Ottoman army approached from the North astride the road, facing South. December 21 was an intensely foggy day.

Ibrahim's army was organised into three rows astride the road. The first row consisted of the 13th and 18th Infantry Brigades with three artillery batteries under Selim Elmansterly. The second row, five hundred paces behind the first, consisted of the 12th and 14th Infantry Brigades with two artillery batteries under Soliman Elfaransawy (Elfaransawy = "the Frenchman" the former Colonel Sèves). The third row, consisted of the Guards Brigade and one artillery battery in reserve and the 1st and 2nd Cavalry Brigades, under Selim bey. Ibrahim posted two battalions in square formation at the flanks to guard against encirclement.

Reshid's army was organised into four rows advancing astride the road. Leading the advance were two regular cavalry brigades and the Guards Infantry brigade in open formation. These were followed by a second row of two infantry and two cavalry brigades, then a third and fourth row each consisting of an infantry brigade. Large numbers of irregulars made up the rear. Artillery was distributed amongst the army.

At about noon the advancing Ottoman's artillery opened fire when the front lines were about 600 yards (550 m) apart. With the heavy fog, the barrage of artillery and as this attack broke, the remaining Ottomans scattered.

Aftermath

Konya was Ibrahim's greatest victory. He lost 262 dead and 530 wounded, whereas the Ottomans lost 3,000 dead and over 5,000 taken prisoner, including many senior officers, including Reşid Mehmed Pasha.[6] The Egyptians remained in possession of the field and took 46 guns, and the Ottoman army was scattered. Nothing remained between Ibrahim's army and Constantinople[7] after the battle. However, it was time for politics, and Ibrahim's father, Muhammad Ali parleyed with Sultan Mahmoud and with the European Powers, and ended up signing the Peace Agreement of Kutahya at the Convention of Kutahya, whereby the Sultan ceded greater Syria to Muhammad Ali for his lifetime, and ceded Egypt's rule to Muhammad Ali's dynasty in perpetuity, with nominal vassalhood to the Ottoman Sultan, but de facto independence. This dynasty only ended in July, 1952 with the abdication of King Farouk after the army coup led by Colonel Gamal Abd el Nasser.

As a postscript to Konya, it should be added that seven years later, the Ottoman Sultan Mahmoud abrogated the Peace of Kotahiya and attacked the Egyptian forces again, but was again routed by the Egyptians at the Battle of Nizib, on the frontier between the Ottoman Empire and Syria, on June 24, 1839.

References

Citations
  1. ^ Laffin, John, Brassey's Dictionary of Battles, (Barnes & Noble Inc., 1995), .227
  2. ^ Grant, R.G., Battle: A Visual Journey through 5,000 years of combat, (DK Publishing Inc., 2005), 263.
  3. ^ Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History, (HarperCollins Publishers, 1993), 851.
  4. ^ McGregor, Andrew James, A Military History of Modern Egypt: from the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War, (Greenwood Publishing Group Inc., 2006), 107.
  5. ^ a b McGregor, 107.
  6. ^ Dupuy, 851.
  7. ^ Finkel, Caroline, Osman's Dream, (Basic Books, 2005), 57; "Istanbul was only adopted as the city's official name in 1930..".
Bibliography
  • Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History, HarperCollins Publishers, 1993.
  • Finkel, Caroline, Osman's Dream, Basic Books, 2005.
  • Grant, R.G., Battle: A Visual Journey through 5,000 years of combat, DK Publishing Inc., 2005.
  • McGregor, Andrew James, A military history of modern Egypt: from the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War, Greenwood Publishing Group Inc., 2006.
  • Laffin, John, Brassey's Dictionary of Battles, Barnes & Noble Inc., 1995.
Note
  • The article cites numerous original sources in Arabic, including official archives, as well as several principal European references, all in French.

Further reading

  • Chapter by Colonel Abd El-Rahman Zaki, published in Arabic in the volume commemorating Ibrahim Pasha on the centennial of his death, published in 1948 by the Egyptian Royal Society for Historical Studies. Republished 1998 by Madbouli Press, Cairo.

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.