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Autonomous administrative division

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Title: Autonomous administrative division  
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Subject: List of predecessors of sovereign states in Asia, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Autonomous city, Indian reservation, State of Franklin
Collection: Autonomous Country Subdivisions, Autonomy, Decentralization
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Autonomous administrative division

Sovereign nations with at least one area labelled "autonomous" or defined as such by law

An autonomous administrative division is an administrative division of a country that has a degree of autonomy, or freedom from an external authority. Typically it is either geographically distinct from the rest of the country or populated by a national minority. Decentralization of self-governing powers and functions to such divisions is a way for a national government to try to increase democratic participation or administrative efficiency and/or to defuse internal conflicts. Countries that include autonomous areas may be federacies, federations, or confederations. Autonomous areas can be divided into territorial autonomies, subregional territorial autonomies, and local autonomies.

Contents

  • By country 1
  • Table by designation 2
  • Other entities with devolution (autonomy) 3
    • British constituent countries 3.1
    • New Zealand dependent territories 3.2
    • Ethiopian special woredas 3.3
    • Danish constituent countries 3.4
    • Dutch constituent countries 3.5
    • French autonomous administrations 3.6
  • Historical 4
  • Other 5
  • See also 6
  • Notes 7
  • Sources 8

By country

Table by designation

Designation Division State Notes
State Azad Kashmir  Islamic Republic of Pakistan Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) is a self-governing state under Pakistani control, but under Pakistan's constitution the state is not formally a part of the country as the Kashmir conflict has not yet been resolved.
Banner Oroqen  People's Republic of China In effect, these are autonomous counties.
Evenk
Morin Dawa Daur
City Buenos Aires  Argentina
Ceuta  Spain The autonomous cities of Spain are two exclaves located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco, separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar.
Melilla
Sejong  Republic of Korea
Tashkent  Uzbekistan Tashkent is the capital of Uzbekistan
Commune Bangui  Central African Republic Bangui is the capital and the largest city of the Central African Republic
Community
There are 17 autonomous communities of Spain
County
There are 117 autonomous counties of the People's Republic of China
District Council
There are 8 autonomous district councils of India
Okrug
There are 6 autonomous okrugs of Russia
Oblast Jewish Autonomous Oblast  Russia
Prefecture
There are 30 autonomous prefectures of the People's Republic of China
Province Aceh  Indonesia
Jeju  Republic of Korea
Kosovo and Metohija Claimed by:
 Serbia
In 2008, the Republic of Kosovo declared independence. While Serbia has not formally recognized Kosovo's independence and still has an administrative apparatus for the Autonomous Province, its independence is recognized by 108 UN member states.
Controlled by:
 Kosovo
Papua  Indonesia
South Tyrol  Italy
Trentino
Vojvodina  Serbia
West Papua  Indonesia
Yogyakarta
Region  Åland Islands  Finland
Aosta Valley  Italy
Azores  Portugal
Bangsamoro  Philippines
Bougainville  Papua New Guinea
Friuli-Venezia Giulia  Italy
Guangxi  People's Republic of China
Hopi Reservation  United States
Cherokee Nation  United States
Oglala Lakota of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation  United States
Inner Mongolia  People's Republic of China
 Iraqi Kurdistan  Iraq Iraqi Kurdistan is the only region that has gained official recognition internationally as an autonomous regional entity.
Madeira  Portugal
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao  Philippines
Mount Athos  Greece
Navajo Nation  United States
Ningxia  People's Republic of China
Nisga'a Nation  Canada
Nunatsiavut
RAAN  Nicaragua
RAAS
Rodrigues  Mauritius
Sardinia  Italy
Sicily
Tibet  People's Republic of China
Tłı̨chǫ  Canada
Xinjiang  People's Republic of China
Zanzibar  Tanzania
There are 14 autonomous regions of India, one of which is a de facto area
Republic Nakhchivan  Azerbaijan
Adjara  Georgia
Abkhazia Claimed by:
 Georgia
In 1999, the recognized by Russia and four other U.N. member states.
Controlled by:
 Abkhazia
Gorno-Badakhshan  Tajikistan
Crimea Claimed by:
 Ukraine
Controlled by
 Russia
Karakalpakstan  Uzbekistan
Sector Bissau  Guinea-Bissau
Territorial Unit Gagauzia  Moldova
Transnistria Claimed by:
 Moldova
In 1990, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic declared its independence from the Soviet Union. While Moldova has not formally recognized Transnistria's independence and still has an administrative apparatus for the Autonomous Province, its independence is recognized by 3 other non-UN member states.
Controlled by:
 Transnistria

Other entities with devolution (autonomy)

British constituent countries

In the United Kingdom, three of the four constituent countries, namely Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, each have an elected devolved legislature which has the ability to legislate in devolved matters. The Parliament of the United Kingdom retains sovereignty however (the United Kingdom remains a unitary state) and legislates in matters that are not devolved, as well as having the capacity to legislate in areas that are devolved (this does not normally occur, by constitutional convention, without the agreement of the devolved legislature). The constitutional basis of the devolved legislatures is also controlled by Acts of the United Kingdom's Parliament. Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man are self-governing Crown dependencies which are not part of the United Kingdom. Gibraltar is a self-governing overseas territory.

New Zealand dependent territories

New Zealand maintains nominal sovereignty over three Pacific Island nations. The Cook Islands and Niue are self-governing countries in free association with New Zealand that maintain some international relationships in their own name. Tokelau remains an autonomous dependency of New Zealand. The Chatham Islands—despite having the designation of Territory—is an integral part of the country, situated within the New Zealand archipelago. The territory's council is not autonomous and has broadly the same powers as other local councils, although notably it can also charge levies on goods entering or leaving the islands.[1]

Ethiopian special woredas

In ethnic minority, and are outside the usual hierarchy of a kilil, or region. These woredas have many similarities to autonomous areas in other countries.

Danish constituent countries

The Faroe Islands and Greenland are two autonomous countries within the Kingdom of Denmark.

Dutch constituent countries

Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are autonomous countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, each with their own parliament.In addition they enjoy autonomy in taxation matters as well as having their own currencies.

French autonomous administrations

The French constitution recognises 3 autonomous jurisdictions. As a Territorial collectivity Corsica enjoys more autonomy on such things as tax and education than mainland regions. New Caledonia and French Polynesia are highly autonomous territories with their own government, currency and constitution. They do not however have legislative powers for policy areas relating to law and order, defense, border control or university education. French Guiana, Guadaloupe, Martinique and Reunion also enjoy a certain level of autonomy with certain legislative power for devolved areas but they do not have their own currency. Other smaller overseas possessions also enjoy similar status.

Historical

Other

Other areas that are autonomous in nature but not in name are areas designated for indigenous peoples, such as those of the Americas:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Chatham Islands Council Act 1995

Sources

  • M. Weller and S. Wolff (eds), Autonomy, Self-governance and Conflict Resolution: Innovative Approaches to Institutional Design in Divided Societies. Abingdon, Routledge, 2005
  • From Conflict to Autonomy in Nicaragua: Lessons Learnt, report by Minority Rights Group International
  • P.M. Olausson, Autonomy and Islands, A Global Study of the Factors that determine Island Autonomy. Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press, 2007.
  • Thomas Benedikter (ed.), Solving Ethnic Conflict through Self-Government - A Short Guide to Autonomy in Europe and South Asia, EURAC Bozen 2009, http://www.eurac.edu/en/research/institutes/imr/Documents/Deliverable_No_9_Update_Set_educational_material.pdf
  • Thomas Benedikter, The World's Modern Autonomy Systems, EURAC Bozen 2010; http://www.gfbv.at/publikationen/weitere_publikationen.php


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