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Apiales

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Title: Apiales  
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Subject: APG III system, Spermolepis hawaiiensis, Apiaceae, Apiales, Bruniales
Collection: Angiosperm Orders, Apiales
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Apiales

Apiales
Inflorescence of a wild carrot, Daucus carota, in the Apiaceae family.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Clade: Euasterids II
Order: Apiales
Nakai[1]
Families[1]

The Apiales are an order of flowering plants. The families are those recognized in the APG III system.[1] This is typical of the newer classifications, though there is some slight variation, and in particular the Torriceliaceae may be divided.[2]

Under this definition, well-known members include carrots, celery, parsley, and ivy.

The order Apiales is placed within the asterid group of eudicots as circumscribed by the APG III system.[1] Within the asterids, Apiales belongs to an unranked group called the campanulids,[3] and within the campanulids, it belongs to a clade known in phylogenetic nomenclature as Apiidae.[4] In 2010, a subclade of Apiidae named Dipsapiidae was defined to consist of the three orders: Apiales, Paracryphiales, and Dipsacales.[5]

The circumscriptions of some of the families have changed. In 2009, one of the subfamilies of Araliaceae was shown to be polyphyletic.[6]

History

The present understanding of the Apiales is fairly recent and is based upon comparison of DNA sequences by phylogenetic methods.[7]

Under the Cronquist system, only the Apiaceae and Araliaceae were included here, and the restricted order was placed among the rosids rather than the asterids. The Pittosporaceae were placed within the Rosales, and many of the other forms within the family Cornaceae. Pennantia was in the family Icacinaceae.

References

  1. ^ a b c d
  2. ^ Gregory M. Plunkett, Gregory T. Chandler, Porter P. Lowry, Steven M. Pinney, and Taylor S. Sprenkle (2004). "Recent advances in understanding Apiales and a revised classification". South African Journal of Botany 70(3):371-381.
  3. ^ Richard C. Winkworth, Johannes Lundberg, and Michael J. Donoghue (2008). "Toward a resolution of Campanulid phylogeny, with special reference to the placement of Dipsacales". Taxon 57(1):53-65.
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
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