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Abruzzi

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Abruzzi

"Abruzzi" redirects here. For other uses, see Abruzzi (disambiguation).

Template:Infobox Region of Italy

Abruzzo (pronounced [aˈbruttso]) is a region in central Italy, its western border lying less than 50 miles (80 km) east of Rome. Abruzzo borders the region of Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise to the south-east, and the Adriatic Sea to the east. Geographically, it is more of a central than southern region, though ISTAT (the Italian statistical authority) considers it part of Southern Italy, a vestige of Abruzzo's historic association with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Geography

Abruzzo is located in central Italy, stretching from the heart of the Apennines to the Adriatic Sea, on a mainly mountainous and wild land. The mountainous inland is occupied by a vast plateau, the highest peaks of which are the Gran Sasso (2,912 m) and Mount Majella (2,793 m). The Adriatic coastline is characterized by long and sandy beaches to the north and pebbly beaches to the south.

Climate

The Abruzzo region has two types of climate: the first is strongly influenced by the presence of Abruzzo's Apennine Mountain range-Central, dividing the climate of the coastal and sub-Apennine hills of the interior mountain ranges of the highest; while coastal areas have a Mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers and mild winters and rainy hills presenting the climatic characteristics of type sublittoral where temperatures decrease progressively with increasing altitude and precipitation with altitude instead. Precipitation also strongly affected by the presence of the Apennine mountain ridges of the region increases with the proportion being more abundant in the field and on the slopes exposed to the west, instead of decreasing towards the east and east-facing slopes. Often the Adriatic coast are sidelined rainfall from the west to the barrier effect of the Apennines undergoing the action of gentle winds descending from it (or Libeccio Garbino). The minimum annual rainfall, however, are found in some inland valleys, sheltered from much disturbance to the blocking action of mountain ridges, such as the Valley Peligna, or the valley of the river Tirino, which in some places (Ofena, Capistrano) showed barely 500 millimetres (19.7 inches), and not along the coast where it never falls below 600 millimetres (23.6 inches), for if the Teramo is relatively little watered by rain (Teramo less than 800 mm), the metre is exceeded in Chieti, reaching maximum levels in the Adriatic, while between Ortona and Vasto in Costa Trabocchi decrease again. The highest rainfall is found instead in upland places on the border with Lazio, are especially vulnerable to disturbances Atlantic, and are around 1,500 to 2,000 millimetres (59 to 79 inches) (Pescara in 2010 showed a value close to 2800 mm).

Flora

As with many Mediterranean regions, Abruzzo's vegetation is characterized by the presence of different Mediterranean ecosystems. The coast and the surrounding areas are characterized by the presence of typical plants of Mediterranean shrubland, such as myrtle, heather and mastic, while in the hilly areas other species grow, including olive, pine, willow, oak, poplar, alder, arbutus, broom, acacia, capers, rosemary, hawthorn, licorice and almond trees, interspersed with oak trees. Between 600 and 1,000 metres of altitude there is sub-montane vegetation, mainly characterized by mixed forests of oak and turkey oak, maple and hornbeam; shrubs include dog rose and red juniper. The altitudes between 1000 and 1900 m are dominated by beech trees. In the Apennines mountain are, above 2000 metres of altitude, species include alpine orchid, mountain juniper, silver fir, black cranberry and the Abruzzo edelweiss.

Fauna

The fauna of Abruzzo is highly varied, including the region's symbol, the Abruzzo chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata), which has recovered after risking extinction. Another animal typical of this region is the marsican brown bear, along with Italian wolf, deer, lynx, roe deer, snow vole, fox, porcupine, wild cat, wild boar, badger, otter and viper.

The natural parks of the region include the Abruzzo National Park,[1] the Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park,[2] the Maiella National Park[3] and the Sirente-Velino Regional Park,[4] as well as numerous others natural reserves and protected areas.[5]

History


Humans have inhabited Abruzzo since Neolithic times. A skeleton from Lama dei Peligni in the province of Chieti has been radiometrically dated to 6,540 bp.[6] The name Abruzzo appears to derive from the Latin "Aprutium", although in Roman times the region was known at various times as Picenum, Sabina et Samnium, Flaminia et Picenum and/or Campania et Samnium.[7] This region was known as Aprutium in the Middle Ages arising from four possible sources. Many think it is apparently a corruption of Praetutium, or rather of the name of the people Praetutii, applied to their chief city, Interamnaes, now present day Teramo.

Until 1963 it was part of the Abruzzi region with Molise. The term Abruzzi derives from the time when the region was part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the territory was administered as Abruzzo Citeriore (Nearer Abruzzo) and Abruzzo Ulteriore I and II (Farther Abruzzo I and II ), that being nearer and farther from Naples, the capital of the kingdom.[7] Abruzzo Citeriore is present day Chieti province. Abruzzo Ulteriore I comprised the Teramo and Pescara provinces; Abruzzo Ulteriore II is now the Province of L'Aquila. In this province is found the city of CORFINIO (known as CORFINIUM in ancient Italy), the chief city of the Paeligni, 7 m. N. of Sulmona in the valley of the Aternus. The site of the original town is occupied by the village of Pentima. It probably became subject to Rome in the 4th century BC, though it does not appear in Roman history before the Social War (90 BC), in which it was at first adopted by the allies as the capital and seat of government. It appears also as a fortress of importance in the Civil War, though it resisted Caesar's attack for a week (49 BC). These people were honored by Caesar as citizens of Rome. It is said that the name "Italia" came from this region because of ancient coins that have been found here that date from about the 1st century BC. These coins have the name "Italia" on them and are apparently proof of this fact. This theory of the origin of the name "Italia" is debated by scholars, archaeologists and history itself. There is much consensus however that the name "Italia" was originally given to the region of modern Calabria by the ancient Greeks during their foundation of Magna Graecia (Greater Greece) in southern Italy around the 8th century BC. It is also said by the Italian Government that Calabria was once called "Italia" by the ancient Greeks in honour of its inhabitants who were known as the "Itali". This occurred hundreds of years before the coins of Corfinio (Corfinium) were apparently minted. The late archaeologist Massimo Pallottino also claimed that the name was derived from the Italic tribes that settled in modern Calabria. But it was not until the time of the Roman conquests that the term was expanded to cover the entire peninsula.

Economy


Until a few decades ago, Abruzzo was a region of poverty in Southern Italy; over the past decades, however, it has developed to such an extent that it has escaped from the spiral of underdevelopment to become the 'first' region of the 'Italian Mezzogiorno'. This confirms its pivotal role in the national economic system. Since the 1950s, Abruzzo has had steady economic growth. In 1951, Abruzzo per capita income or GDP was 53% of that of Northern Italy, the nation's richest region. By 1971, Abruzzo was at 65% and, by 1994, per capita income was at 76% of Northern Italy's per capita income, giving Abruzzo the highest per capita GDP of Southern Italy and surpassing the growth of every other region of Italy. The construction of superhighways from Rome to Teramo (A24) and Rome to Pescara (A25) opened Abruzzo to easy access, state and private investment in the region increased, and Abruzzo attained higher per capita education levels and greater productivity growth than the rest of the South. As of 2003, Abruzzo's per capita GDP was €19,506 or 84% of the national average of €23,181 and well outpacing that of the South (€15,808).[8] As of 2006, the region's average GDP per capita was approximately 20,100 EUR.[9]

The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake led to a sharp economic slowdown. However, according to statistics at the end of 2010, it seems that the economy of Abruzzo is recovering, despite the negative data regarding employment. In fact, at the end of 2010, Abruzzo's growth was 1.47%, which placed it fourth among the Italian regions with the highest annual growth rates after Lazio, Lombardy and Calabria. In 2011 Abruzzo's economic growth was +2.3%, the highest percentage among the regions of Southern Italy. The region is also the richest region of Southern Italy, with a GDP per capita higher than any other region of southern Italy (€21,574).

Abruzzo's industrial sector expanded rapidly, especially in mechanical engineering, transportation equipment and telecommunications.[10] The structure of production in the region reflects the transformation of the economy from agriculture to industry and services. Although industry has developed strongly, it retains weak points due to the existence of only a few large businesses alongside a huge fabric of small and medium-sized businesses. Both pure and applied research are carried out in the region, where there are major institutes and factories involved in research in the fields of pharmaceutics, biomedicine, electronics, aerospace and nuclear physics. The industrial infrastructure is spread throughout the region in industrial zones which have already been mentioned, the most important of which are Val Pescara, Val Sangro, Val Trigno, Val Vibrata and Conca del Fucino. A further activity worthy of note is seaside and mountain tourism, which is of considerable importance to the economy of the region.[11] Agriculture, involving small holdings, has succeeded in modernising and offering high-quality products. The mostly small, agricultural holdings produce wine, cereals, sugar beet, potatoes, olives, vegetables, fruit and dairy products. Traditional products are saffron and liquorice. Most famous in the world is Abruzzo's wine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo; in the late 20th and early 21st century, Montepulciano d'Abruzzo earned a reputation as being one of the most widely exported DOC classed wine in Italy.[12]

In the past decade, tourism has increased, in particular concerning internal and European arrivals. Abruzzo's wealth of castles and medieval towns, especially around the town of L'Aquila, has earned it in some quarters the nickname of "Abruzzoshire", by analogy with the "Chiantishire", nickname sometimes used to refer to the Chianti area of Tuscany, but Abruzzo is still off the beaten path for most visitors to Italy. The Times newspaper described Abruzzo as "the king of agrotourism".[13] Abruzzo ranks fifth among the Italian regions by tourist arrivals after the Calabria, the Marche, the Sardinia and Trentino. In 2010, arrivals totalled 6,381,067 Italian and 925,884 foreign.[14]

Demographics

The population density, although it has increased over the last decades, is well below the national average. In 2008, there were in fact 123.4 inhabitants per km2 in Abruzzo, compared to a national average of 198.8. At the province level, the situation is quite varied: Pescara is the most densely populated province (260.1 inhabitants per km2 in 2008), whereas, at the other extreme, L'Aquila is the least densely populated one (61.3 inhabitants per km2 in 2008), although it has the largest area. After decades of emigration from the region, the main feature of the 1980s is the immigration from third world countries. The population increase is due to the positive net migration, as since 1991 more deaths than births were registered in Abruzzo (except for 1999, when their number was equal).[15] In 2008, the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 59,749 foreign-born immigrants live in Abruzzo, equal to 4.5% of the total regional population.

The most serious demographic imbalance is between the mountainous areas of the interior and the coastal strip. The largest province, L'Aquila, is situated entirely in the interior and has the lowest population density. The movement of the population of Abruzzo from the mountains to the sea has led to the almost complete urbanisation of the entire coastal strip. The effects on the interior have been impoverishment and a demographic ageing, reflected by an activity rate in the province of L'Aquila which is the lowest of the provinces in Abruzzo – accompanied by geological degradation as a result of the absence of conservation measures. In the coastal strip, on the other hand, there is such a jumble of accommodation and activities that the environment has been changed with negative effects. The policy of providing incentives for development has resulted in the setting-up of industrial zones, some of which (Vasto, Avezzano, Carsoli, Gissi, Val Vibrata, Val Sangro) have made genuine progress, while others (Val Pescara, L'Aquila) have run into trouble after initial success. The zones of Sulmona and Guardiagrele have turned out to be more or less failures. Outside these zones, the main activities are agriculture and tourism.[15]

Main settlements

L'Aquila is both the capital city of the Abruzzo region and of the Province of L'Aquila and second largest city (pop. 73,000). L'Aquila was hit by an earthquake on 6 April 2009 which destroyed much of the city centre. The other provincial capitals are Pescara, which is Abruzzo's largest city and major port (pop. 123,000); Teramo (pop. 55,000) and Chieti (pop. 55,000). Other large municipalities in Abruzzo include Avezzano (pop.41,000), an industrial and high technology center, Vasto (population 40,636), Lanciano (population 36,000), and Sulmona (population 25,000) are three important industrial and touristic centers.

Transport and mobility

Airports

  • Abruzzo International Airport is the only international airport in the region. Open to civilian traffic since 1996, has seen over the years more and more increase the number of transit passengers thanks to the airlines and low-cost flights. Today, the airport has a catchment area of over 500,000 passengers annually and connects the city of Pescara and the entire region with many Italian and European destinations.[16]
  • L'Aquila-Preturo Airport is located in the nearby village of Courts and was recently renovated and modernized to accommodate flights presidential G8, specifically moved into the city after the earthquake in Abruzzo. Soon the airport will also be open to civilian traffic.

Ports

There are four main ports in Abruzzo: Pescara, Ortona, Vasto and Giulianova.

Over the years the Port of Pescara became one of the most important tourist ports of Italy and the Adriatic Sea. Heavily damaged in World War II, it underwent some 60 years of major restoration and was reborn as a modern marina with advanced moorings and shipbuilding facilities. It has been honored with the European Union's blue flag for the quality of services offered. The port of Pescara has lost passenger traffic because of its shallowness and silting, but its fishery and aquaculture activities are thriving.[17]

Rail services

Regarding rail transport, there is a significant disparity between the Abruzzo coast and that of inland areas, very poor in terms of modernity and quality of service and waiting decades of development interventions and modernization (see in particular the Rome-Pescara line). For some routes it has reached the situation where road transport is much faster than rail, which sometimes have schedules similar to those of over a century ago, and that often leads people to use buses instead of trains.

Existing railway lines:

  • Ferrovia Adriatica (through the whole of Italy from north to south, along the Adriatic Sea): The question that interests the Abruzzo region is included in the Towns of Martinsicuro and S. Unless, that delimit the borders with Marche and Molise regions, namely, the 113 km (70.21 mi) between the stations of intercurrent Alba Adriatica-Nereto-Controguerra and Broad-S. Salvo. The interchanges are made by the respective railway lines Giulianova Teramo and Pescara-Rome.
  • Train Rome – Sulmona – Pescara: Pescara-Rome railway line is along the railway line Bologna-Bari on the Adriatic other line is important because through the Tyrrhenian coast, passing through the provinces of Pescara, Chieti and L'Aquila and ends the path to Roma Tiburtina station. The railway which covers the Abruzzo Region, lies in 170 km (105.63 mi), ranging from municipalities to the province of Pescara Carsoli, and Oricola Pereto. The infrastructure in question is the following interchanges: Sulmona, Isernia, Terni-Sulmona, Avezzano-Roccasecca, Bologna and Bari.
  • Sulmona – Carpinone: the infrastructure in question is a continuation to the south of Terni-Sulmona, as part of the intermediate cross-Pescara Naples. After that Brenner is the highest railway station in Italy, whose tortuous path, characterized by steep slopes, passing through the station Rivisondoli-Pescocostanzo and wedges in the Abruzzo National Park and the Maiella. The line is the interchanges of railway lines Rome-Pescara and Sulmona – L'Aquila – Rieti – Terni. Reached Carpinone, divides west to east to Benevento and Caserta.
  • Sulmona – Terni: Trafficking in question connects the regions of Umbria, Lazio and Abruzzo, Molise and then along the line-Carpinone Sulmona. It therefore crosses the inner Abruzzo, finding interchanges Avezzano and Pescara-Rome-Roccasecca, in their respective provinces of L'Aquila, Terni and Rieti. It concerns a type of regional traffic in that, across the Tyrrhenian perpendicular colleague Abruzzo, Umbria, Lazio and Molise. The question of interest is included in the Abruzzo town of Sulmona and Tornimparte and more precisely in the stations 75 km (46.60 mi) intercurrent Sulmona and saddle horn.
  • Avezzano railroad – Roccasecca: infrastructure test starts on the track in the town of Avezzano, crosses the territory of Marsica, passes through the valley and Bush get into the Lazio region, in the town of Sora. Her journey ends in the town of Roccasecca which marks the end of Lazio and the entry in the Campania region towards Cassino. Therefore the only online exchange that meets the railway line is Pescara – Rome station Avezzano.
  • Giulianova – Teramo (a branch railway line Adriatic you forward towards the interior until Teramo) railway line Giulianova Teramo, the network is complementary to the Adriatic, fulfilling a liaison function between the capital and the coast. Therefore, the only rail interchange is characterized by the Adriatic railway line Bologna – Bari, Abruzzo is Martinsicuro rail-Broad-S. Salvo. With its 24 km (14.91 mi) journey infrastructure is the result, a SS80 along the path to the location of the industrial districts of Teramo, before merging the SS 16 that accesses the port Giulianova.
  • Sangritana (Lanciano – Castel di Sangro): The infrastructure in question are an important transition between the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas, as in Pescara station meets the respective points of connection of the FS Bologna – Bari and Pescara – Rome, while that of Sulmona, L'Aquila lines FS – Terni and Sulmona – Carpinone. This position transition, attributed to the infrastructure an important strategic military role in World War II, a stage when the bombing of the German armed forces air, marked the temporary suspension of the subject line of repair work. Like other regional railways direct Aquila, Sulmona and Roccasecca, through a circuitous route mountain typically characterized by steep slopes, although in terms of localization of production facilities is to signal the passage of the railway in the industrial area of Valle del Sangro .

Highways

Overview of the route east of the tunnel just before the Great Sassola road and motorway network in the Abruzzo region is relatively well developed, there are three highways that serve the region:

  • Highway A24 Roma – Aquila – Teramo, was built in the 70s and connects Rome with Lazio and more specifically to the Abruzzo Teramo via L'Aquila, performs an important liaison function of the region, both Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic, due to the presence of several knots of connection roads and highways. Numerous infrastructure connecting adjacent junction as directional Torano it branches in the A25 to Pescara, Teramo to Giulianova on SS80, SS81 to Chieti and on the A14 Bologna-Taranto, exit on the freeway Rieti Valley Jump -Terni, exit west on SS80 to L'Aquila Teramo, near Tivoli and the connection to the A1 motorway allows easy connections with Naples and Milan, the highway construction has contributed greatly to the economic development of the region .
  • Highway A25 Torano – Avezzano – Pescara allows the connection between Rome and Pescara, as of the release of Torano begins its journey where it intersects with the A24, flows in the Conca Fucino exceeds the Appennino Abruzzese coming to Peligna Valley and ends at 'exit Pescara-Villanova to join the A14.
  • Motorway A14 Bologna – Taranto said the A14 "Adriatica" includes 743 km (461.68 mi) of route, including the cities of Bologna and Taranto. Inaugurated in 1965 is now a major tourist infrastructure, as through the coastal towns of Emilia Romagna, Marche, Abruzzo, Molise and Puglia. Abruzzo is the infrastructure in question, including the toll of South Broad and Val Vibrata, which mark the border with the Marche and Molise. Regarding the links, the A14 meets the SS16 (which was necessarily walked before his execution), the SS652 Bottom Sangro Valley near Broad and SS80 in Giulianova.

Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Abruzzo


Administrative divisions

The region is divided into 4 provinces:

Province Area (km²) Population Density (inh./km²)
Province of Chieti 2,588 396,190 153.1
Province of L'Aquila 5,034 308,876 61.3
Province of Pescara 1,225 318,701 260.1
Province of Teramo 1,948 308,769 158.5


Culture


In the past, the region of Abruzzo was well known for the transumanza, the migratory movement of sheep principally south to the region of Puglia during the cold winter months.

The regional accents of Abruzzo include Teramano, Abruzzese Orientale Adriatico and Abruzzese Occidentale. The first two form part of the dialect of southern Italy also known simply as "Neapolitan" due to the region having been part of the Kingdom of Naples and the Two Sicilies, while the Italian of L'Aquila Province is related to the Osco-Umbro dialect of central Italy, including the one of Rome. It should be noted that Abruzzo's Italian dialects are not particularly marked. In fact, Harvard University bases an intensive summer language program in Vasto, a resort town on Abruzzo's southern coast. There is, however, a small Albanian linguistic area at Penne, in the Province of Pescara.

Among Abruzzo many historic towns are: Sulmona at the foot of the Maiella massif and known for Italy's most famous ancient poet, Ovid; Scanno, a lakeside hill town; Atri a picturesque artistic center; and the hillside towns of Penne; Lanciano and Loreto Aprutino.

Dialects

The dialects spoken in the Abruzzo region and can be divided into three main groups:

  • Sabine dialect, in the province of L'Aquila (central Italian dialects)
  • Abruzzo Adriatic dialect, in the province of Teramo, Pescara and Chieti, that is virtually abandoned in the province of Ascoli Piceno (southern Italian dialects)
  • Abruzzo western dialect, in the province of L'Aquila (southern Italian dialects)

Medieval and Renaissance hill towns

Abruzzo holds many of Italy's best-preserved medieval and Renaissance hill towns. The abrupt decline of Abruzzo's agricultural economy in the early to mid-20th century saved some of the region’s most beautiful hill towns from the onslaught of modern development. Many lie entirely within regional and national parks so their preservation is all but guaranteed. Among the most well preserved are Castel del Monte and Santo Stefano di Sessanio, which lie in the Gran Sasso National Park on the edge of the high plain of Campo Imperatore and nestled beneath the Apennines’ highest peaks; both hill towns, which were ruled by the Medicis for over a century-and-a-half, have relatively little tourism. Between the two towns sits Rocca di Calascio, the ruin of an ancient fortress popular with film makers. Also within the Gran Sasso National Park is Castelli, an ancient pottery center whose artisans produced ceramics for most of the royal houses of Europe. Although still home to many artisans, Castelli has a modest tourist trade. Other medieval hill towns located fully within Abruzzo's park system are Pacentro in the Parco Nazionale della Majella and Pescasseroli in the Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo. Pacentro, which features a 14th-century castle with two intact towers, has been little touched by modernization.

Universities

There are three universities in the Abruzzo region:

Cuisine

Both the agricultural and coastal aspects of Abruzzo have contributed to its cuisine. One of the most prominent dishes of the region is maccheroni alla chitarra. This dish is created by pressing or cutting pasta through an instrument called a chitarra, creating long thin noodles similar to spaghetti. The pasta is served with a tomato-based sauce, often flavored with peppers, pork, goose, or lamb. This dish is served with complementary regional side dishes, such as the bean and noodle soup known as sagne e fagioli. This soup is traditionally flavored with tomatoes, garlic, oil, and peperoncini.

Other popular dishes include:

Across the region, roast lamb is enjoyed in several variations. Some of these variations include:

  • Arrosticini, a skewered lamb dish
  • Pecora al cotturo, lamb stuffed with a variety of mountain herbs and cooked in a copper pot
  • Lamb cooked whole in a bread oven
  • Agnello cacio e ovo, a lamb-based fricassee

Seafood also plays a role in the cuisine of Abruzzo, especially in those areas located closer to the coast. The variety of fish available to the area has resulted in several fish-based Brodetti (broths), coming from such places as Vasto, Giulianova, and Pescara. These broths are often created by cooking the fish in an earthenware pot, and flavored with tomatoes, herbs, and peperoncino.

Rustic pizzas are also very common. Some of these are:

  • Easter Pizza, a rustic cake with cheese and pepper from the Teramo area
  • Fiadoni from Chieti, dough of eggs and cheese well risen, cooked in the oven in a thin casing of pastry
  • A rustic tart pastry filled with everything imaginable: eggs, fresh cheeses, ricotta, vegetables, and all sorts of flavorings and spices.

Also from Teramano are the spreadable sausages flavored with nutmeg, liver sausages tasting of garlic and spices. The ventricina from the Vasto area is made with large pieces of fat and lean pork, pressed and seasoned with powdered sweet peppers and fennel and all encased in the dehydrated stomach of the pig itself. Atri and Rivisondoli are famous for cheeses. Mozzarella, either fresh or seasoned, made from ewe's milk, although a great number of lesser known varieties of these cheeses can be found all over Abruzzo and Molise.

The sweets of Abruzzo are famous throughout the world. Some of the better known include:

  • Confetti, sugar-coated almonds, from Sulmona
  • Torrone Nurzia, a chocolate nougat from L'Aquila
  • Parrozzo , a cake-like treat made from a mixture of crushed almonds, and coated in chocolate.
  • Ferratelle (also known as Pizelle). A wafer cookie, often flavored with anise
  • Croccante, a type of nougat made from almonds and caramelized suger, often flavored with lemon[18]

Notes

External links

  • Official site of the regional administration
  • Official Abruzzo tourist board website
  • Map of Abruzzo
  • Financial Times, 29 June 2007
  • The Guardian, 16 April 2005
  • Life in Abruzzo,a chronicle of Abruzzo life written from a hill village in the Gran Sasso Mountains

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